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Characterization and Adsorption Properties of the
Chelating Hydrogels Derived from Natural Materials for
Possible Use in the Improvement of Groundwater Quality 

H. A. Shawky, A. El-Hag Ali, R. A. El Sheikh

Published online 11 January 2006 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).

ABSTRACT

A new carrageenan based chelating copolymer
sorbent was prepared by gamma radiation induced
copolymerization and crosslinking of kappa-carrageenan (k-
Car) and acrylic acid (AAc). The swelling characteristics of
the prepared copolymer were investigated by studying the
effect of time, pH, and ionic strength of the swelling medium.
The sorption capacities of the chelating copolymer for
Fe, Pb, Mn, Zn, Cu, Sr, Cd, and Al were 172, 202, 202, 216,
221, 230, 239, and 244 mg/g respectively. The Freundlich
and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used to validate
the metal uptake data and heats of adsorption for the investigated
metal ions were calculated. The re-use experiment
showed that the prepared hydrogel could be regenerated
upto at least 10 times. Because of the promising data collected
from bench scale experiments, the prepared copolymer
was examined as chelating sorbent to improve the
quality of some groundwater resources. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals,
Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 99: 2904–2912, 2006

Study the chemical characteristics of groundwater to determine the suitable localities desalination processes in the area between Mersa Alam and Ras Banas, Red Sea Coast Eastern Desert, Egypt

Hosam A. Shawky, Moustafa M. Said, Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar, Yousra H. Kotp, and Mohamed S. A. Abdel Mottaleb

Journal of American Science 2012;8(11)

Abstract: Egypt is characterized by an arid to semi-aride climate and its population is increasing at an annual rate. With such population growth rate and fast social-economical development, water demand and waste water production are steeply increasing, and the gap between water supply and demand is getting wider. The fast growing development in Egypt has required big movements of investments and people from the Nile Valley towards the east, with the fantastic Red Sea coastal zone, that has promising brackish groundwater potentialities. Fresh water supply is essential and desalination is a feasible option that can cover the wide gap between the available capacities and the accelerating demands. A major misconception in the design of membrane water treatment facilities is that if a groundwater source is used to feed the plant, chemical characteristic of water will be relatively stable with time. There are wide variations in the groundwater chemistry caused by pumping aquifers based on the local geology and hydrology. Modeling of these possible water chemistry studies should be accomplished prior to the final design of any membrane treatment facility. The primary geologic controls on groundwater chemistry within a subsurface aquifer system are the natural barriers which control the vertical inflow of water from adjacent aquifers containing water with different chemistries. This water chemistry change is caused by mixing of the leaked water with the seawater contained in the study area. Due to the complexity of groundwater chemistry, it is classified into several factors, these factors based on the total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, the concentration of major, minor and trace components. The results of the analysis of water samples collected from the area of study show wide ranges of TDS (439-46341 mg/l), total hardness (236-14371 mg/l as CaCO3) and chloride concentration (84-26664 mg/l). Also, the presence of metals such as iron and manganese is observed. Moreover, according to chemical characteristics of the groundwater, best sites for possible desalination projects were selected.
[Hosam A. Shawky, Moustafa M. Said, Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar, Yousra H. Kotp, and Mohamed S. A. Abdel Mottaleb. Study the chemical characteristics of groundwater to determine the suitable localities for desalination processes in the area between Mersa Alam and Ras Banas, Red Sea Coast, Eastern Desert, Egypt.

Study on polyamide thin film nano-composite membranes using different types of multi-walled carbon
nanotubes at different pH feed solutions.

Abdel-Hameed Mostafa El-Aassar

Journal of American Science 2016;12(11)

Abstract: To enhance the performance of polyamide thin film composite (PA-TFC) membranes, nonfunctionalized,
NH2 and COOH functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) were used as additives.
The PA active layer was prepared via interfacial polymerization between m-Phenylene diamine (MPD) in aqueous
phase and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in dodecane as organic phase. The obtained results indicated a general
improvement in the RO performance, the values of permeate flux increased from 33.61 for non-modified PA-TFC
membrane to 37.78, 36.15, 38.12 L/m2.h for non-functionalized, NH2, COOH functionalized MW-CNTs,
respectively. The obtained TFNC membranes possess high values of salt rejection (%) that is not lower 99.63. The
surface hydrophilicity of PA-TFNC membranes improved as compared with the neat PA-TFC membrane. Also, the
rejection (R) of both Na+ and Cl-ions showed that at pH< 6.5, at acidic media; the R (Na+) > R (Cl-). On the other
hand, at pH > 6.5, at alkaline media the R (Na+) < R (Cl-). While, at pH=6.5, at slightly neutral media; the R (Na+) = R (Cl-). [Abdel-Hameed Mostafa El-Aassar. Study on polyamide thin film nano-composite membranes using different types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes at different pH feed solutions. [/av_textblock] [av_textblock textblock_styling_align='justify' textblock_styling='' textblock_styling_gap='' textblock_styling_mobile='' size='15' av-medium-font-size='' av-small-font-size='' av-mini-font-size='' font_color='' color='' id='' custom_class='' template_class='' av_uid='av-lwkwf' sc_version='1.0' admin_preview_bg=''] Click here to download PDF file

Integrated Geochemistry, Isotopes, and Geostatistical
Techniques to Investigate Groundwater Sources
and Salinization Origin in the Sharm EL-Shiekh Area,
South Sinia, Egypt

Heba Isawi & Magdi H. El-Sayed & Mustafa Eissa & Orfan Shouakar-Stash &
Hosam Shawky & Mohamed S. Abdel Mottaleb

 Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Abstract: The Sharm El-Sheikh area is one of the most
attractive touristic resorts in Egypt and in the world in
general. The Sharm El-Shiekh area is located at the arid
region of the South Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.Water desalination
is considered the main freshwater supply for
hotels and resorts. Scarcity of rainfall during the last
decades, high pumping rates, disposal of reject brine
water back into the aquifer, and seawater intrusion have
resulted in the degradation of groundwater quality in the
main aquifer.Water chemistry, stable isotopes, Seawater
Mixing Index (SWMI), and factorial analyses were utilized
to determine the main recharge and salinization
sources as well as to estimate the mixing ratios between
different end members affecting groundwater salinity in
the aquifer. The groundwater of the Miocene aquifer is
classified into two groups: group I represents 10 % of
the total samples, has a moderately high saline groundwater,
and is mostly affected by seawater intrusion.
Group II represents 90 % of the total samples and has
a high groundwater salinity due to the anthropological
impact of the reject brine saline water deeper into the
Miocene aquifer. The main groundwater recharge
comes from the western watershed mountain and the
elevated plateau while the seawater and reject brine are
considering the main sources for groundwater salinization.
The mixing ratios between groundwater recharge,
seawater, and reject brine water were calculated using
water chemistry and isotopes. The calculated mixing
ratios of group I range between 25 and 84 % recharge
groundwater to 75 and 16 % seawater, respectively, in
groundwater located close to the western watershed
mountain indicating further extension of seawater intrusion.
However, the mixing percentages of group II range
between 21 and 88 % reject brine water to 79 and 12 %
seawater, respectively, in groundwater located close to
the desalination plants. The outcomes and conclusion of
this study highlight the importance of groundwater management
to limit further groundwater deterioration of the
Miocene groundwater aquifer and limit seawater intrusion
along the coast.

Synthesis and characterization of a carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposite
membrane for water treatment

Hosam A. Shawky , So-Ryong Chae , Shihong Lin , Mark . Wiesner

Journal of ELSEVIER

a b s t r a c t
Multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/aromatic polyamide (PA) nanocomposite membranes were
synthesized by a polymer grafting process. Surface morphology, roughness, and mechanical strength of the
resultant nanocomposite membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic
force microscopy (AFM), and micro-strain analysis, respectively. SEM and AFM images showed that MWCNTs
were well dispersed in the PA matrix. Measurements of mechanical properties of this composite showed
increasing membrane strength with increasing MWCNT content with monotonic increases in Young’s
modulus, toughness, and tensile strength. The addition of MWCNTs also improved the rejection of both salt
and organic matter relative to the 10% PA membrane base case. The nanocomposite membrane synthesized
with 15 mg/g MWCNT in a 10% PA casting solution rejected NaCl and humic acid by factors of 3.17 and 1.67
respectively relative to the PA membrane without MWCNTs, while membrane permeability decreased by
6.5%.

Performance of aromatic polyamide RO membranes synthesized by interfacial
polycondensation process in a water–tetrahydrofuran system

H.A. Shawky

Journal of Membrane Science

a b s t r a c t
In the present study, an attempt is made to synthesize thin film reverse osmosis membranes based aromatic
polyamide polymer. Poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide), an aromatic polyamide, is synthesized in
the laboratory by high-speed stirring interfacial polycondensation of m-phenylene diamine and isophthaloyl
chloride in water and tetrahydrofuran solvents, respectively. FTIR results confirm the polymer
synthesis. The yield of the polymer obtained is ∼100% of the theoretical value with an inherent viscosity
of 1.99 dL/g. Different RO membranes were synthesized from this aromatic polyamide (PA) under
different casting conditions by varying the casting solution composition and casting thickness using N,Ndimethylacetamide
(DMAC) as solvent. As a result, five different membranes were obtained containing
PA concentration ranged from 10 to 20% in three membrane casting thicknesses 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3mm. The
membraneswere characterized by their physico-chemical properties. Mechanical characteristics showed
that the increase in the polymer concentration from 10 to 20% in the membrane matrix as well as the
increase in the membrane casting thickness from0.1 to 0.3mmresulted in increasing membrane strength
and Young’s modulus. On the other hand, this increase in the polymer concentration and membrane casting
thickness resulted in membranes with poor elongation and toughness. SEM approved the anisotropic
structure of the synthesized membranes. The reverse osmosis tests for the synthesized membranes were
performed with 4000ppm aqueous sodium chloride at operating pressures varied from 30 to 50 kg/cm2.
All the membranes were characterized for their salt rejection (%), water flux (L/hm2) and permeability
(L/hm2 bar). The data obtained for theROperformance showed that the increase in polymer concentration
in the membrane content as well as the increase in the membrane casting thickness result in increasing
salt rejection and decrease in both water flux and permeability. In 0.2mmcasting thickness membranes,
the increase in polymer concentration from 10 to 20% results in an increase in salt rejection from 25.5 to
79.7%. Meanwhile, decrease in water flux and permeability ranged 34–12 L/m2 h and 0.9–0.3 L/m2 h bar,
respectively also occurred in the membranes having polymer concentrations from 10 to 20% with the
same 0.2mm casting thickness.

Conceptual Design and Numerical Analysis
of a Novel Floating Desalination Plant Powered
by Marine Renewable Energy for Egypt

Islam Amin , Mohamed E.A. Ali , Seif Bayoumi , Selda Oterkus , Hosam Shawky
and Erkan Oterkus

journal of marine science and engineering

Abstract: The supply of freshwater has become a worldwide interest, due to serious water shortages
in many countries. Due to rapid increases in the population, poor water management, and
limitations of freshwater resources, Egypt is currently below the water scarcity limit. Since Egypt
has approximately 3000 km of coastlines on both the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, seawater
desalination powered by marine renewable energy could be a sustainable alternative solution,
especially for remote coastal cities which are located far from the national water grid. The objective
of this research work is to evaluate the feasibility of a floating desalination plant (FDP) concept
powered by marine renewable energy for Egypt. A novel design of the FDP concept is developed
as an innovative solution to overcome the freshwater shortage of remote coastal cities in Egypt. A
mobile floating platform supported by reverse osmosis (RO) membrane powered by marine
renewable power technology is proposed. Based on the abundant solar irradiation and sufficient
wind density, Ras Ghareb was selected to be the base site location for the proposed FDP concept.
According to the collected data from the selected location, a hybrid solar–wind system was designed
to power the FDP concept under a maximum power load condition. A numerical tool, the DNV‐GL
Sesam software package, was used for static stability, hydrodynamic performance, and dynamic
response evaluation. Moreover, WAVE software was used to design and simulate the operation of
the RO desalination system and calculate the power consumption for the proposed FDP concept.
The results show that the proposed mobile FDP concept is highly suitable for being implemented in
remote coastal areas in Egypt, without the need for infrastructure or connection to the national grid
for both water and power.

Performance evaluation of the different
nano-enhanced polysulfone membranes via
membrane distillation for produced water
desalination in Sert Basin-Libya

Osamah M.A. Shahlol , Heba Isawi , Mohamed . El-Malky ,
Abd El-Hameed M. Al-Aassar , Adel El zwai

Arabian Journal of Chemistry

Abstract: A Polysulfone-Polyethylene glycol (PS/PEG) flat sheet membrane was prepared by phase
inversion technique. Dimethyl Formamide (DMF) was utilized as a solvent and deionized water
was utilized as the coagulant. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) of a various dose of PEG 2000 was utilized
as the polymeric improvers and as a pore-forming agent in the casting mixture. The single-walled
carbon nanotube (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs), aluminum oxide
(Al2O3) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) were utilized to improve the PS/PEG membrane
performances. The characterizations of the neat PS, PS/PEG, PS/PEG/Al2O3 (M1) PSPEG/
CuO (M2), PS-PEG/SWCNTs (M3) and PS/PEG/MWCNTs (M14) nanocomposite (NC)
modified membranes were acquired via Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR), water contact
angle estimation (WCA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), dynamic mechanical analyzer
(DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Enhanced Direct contact membrane distillation
(EDCMD) unit was used for estimating the efficiency of the performance of the synthesized NC
membranes via 60 C feed synthetic water and/or saline oil field produced water samples containing
salinities 123,14 mg/L. Adjusting the operational procedures and water characteristics confirmed a
high salt rejection of 99.99% by the synthesized NC membranes. The maximum permeate flux

Comparative performance evaluations of nanomaterials mixed polysulfone:
A scale-up approach through vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane
distillation for water desalination

Mohamed S. Fahmeya, Abdel-Hameed Mostafa El-Aassara, Mustafa M.Abo-Elfadela,
Adel Sayed Orabib, Rasel Dasc,

Journal of ELSEVIER

A B S T R A C T
Doping of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), silicon dioxide (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc
oxide (ZnO) into polysulfone (PSf) flat sheet membranes was prepared by phase inversion process. The characterizations
of the PSf and PSf-MWCNT, PSf-SiO2, PSf-TiO2 and PSf-ZnO membranes were achieved using
Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, contact angle measurement, dynamic mechanical analyzer, thermogravimetric
analysis and scanning electron microscope. Vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation
unit was used for evaluating the efficacy of prepared membranes in water desalination. Optimizing the operational
procedures and water characteristics ensured a high slat rejection of 99.99% using the prepared membranes.
The highest permeate flux obtained in the order of MWCNT (41.58) > SiO2
(38.84) > TiO2(35.6) > ZnO (34.42 L/m2·h) with optimized concentration of 1.0, 0.5, 0.75, 0.5 wt% relative
to PSf weight, i.e. 15%. The optimum operational conditions included feed and permeate temperatures 60 °C and
20 °C, respectively, synthetic NaCl feed water with salinity was 10,000 ppm.

Effect of manufacture conditions on reverse osmosis desalination performance of polyamide thin film composite membrane and their spiral wound element

Abdel-Hameed M. El-Aassar, Moustafa M. S. Abo ElFadl, Mohamed E. A. Ali,
Yousra H. Kotp, Hosam A. Shawky

Journal of DESWATER

abstract
Manual operation manufacture line was used to study the performance of flat sheet and spiral wound thin-film composite polyamide-polysulfone reverse osmosis membrane. Continuous flat sheet of porous support layer was manufactured by casting PS solution on nonwoven polyester. Fabrication
of TFC flat sheet membrane was achieved through interfacial polymerization of m-phenylenediamine
with trimesoyl chloride on the PS support by employing a reaction line. Finally, spiral wound element was manufactured by rolling of the resulted flat sheet membrane. The fabricated flat sheet PA-TFC membranes were characterized using; ATR-FTIR, contact angle, dynamic mechanical analyzer and scanning electron microscope. Performance of the resulted flat sheet and spiral wound membrane element was investigated in terms of water flux and salt rejection using synthesized sodium chloride solution, natural brackish & saline water samples. The effect of operation condition in the casting and coating machines on the performance of the flat sheet membrane was examined. Adoptions of the rolling technique showed significant improvement on the RO performance of the membrane element. Moreover, membrane elements were evaluated for application in water desalination
process using natural brackish/saline groundwater or seawater samples.

Surface nanostructuring of thin film composite membranes via grafting polymerization
and incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles

Heba Isawia, Magdi H. El-Sayed, Xianshe Feng ,
Hosam Shawky, Mohamed S. Abdel-Mottaleb

Journal of ELSEVIER

Abstract
A new approach for modification of polyamid thin film composite membrane PA(TFC) using
synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was shown to enhance the membrane performances for reverse
osmosis water desalination. First, active layer of synthesis PA(TFC) membrane was activated with an aqueous
solution of free radical graft polymerization of hydrophilic methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer onto the surface
of the PA(TFC) membrane resulting PMAA-g-PA(TFC). Second, the the PA(TFC) membrane has been
developed by incorporation of ZnO NPs into the MAA grafting solution resulting the ZnO NPs modified
PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane. The surface properties of the synthesized nanoparticles and prepared membranes
were investigated using the FTIR, XRD and SEM. Morphology studies demonstrated that ZnO NPs have been
successfully incorporated into the active grafting layer over PA(TFC) composite membranes. The zinc leaching
from the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was minimal, as shown by batch tests that indicated
stabilization of the ZnO NPs on the membrane surfaces. Compared with the a pure PA(TFC) and PMAA-g-
PA(TFC) membranes, the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was more hydrophilic, with an improved
water contact angle (~50 ± 3°) over the PMAA-g-PA(TFC) (63 ± 2.5°). The ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-
PA(TFC) membrane showed salt rejection of 97% (of the total groundwater salinity), 99% of dissolved bivalent
ions (Ca2+, SO4
2-and Mg2+), and 98% of mono valent ions constituents (Cl- and Na+). In addition, antifouling
performance of the membranes was determined using E. coli as a potential foulant. This demonstrates that the
ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane can significantly improve the membrane performances and
was favorable to enhance the selectivity, permeability, water flux, mechanical properties and the bio-antifouling
properties of the membranes for water desalination.

Design of a small mobile PV-driven RO water desalination plant to be
deployed at the northwest coast of Egypt

Hosam A. Shawky, Amr A. Abdel Fatah, Moustafa M.S. Abo ElFadl,
Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar

Taylor & Francis

ABSTRACT
Water desalination projects based on reverse osmosis (RO) technology are being introduced in
Egypt to combat drinking water shortage in remote areas. RO desalination is a pressure-driven
process. This paper focuses on the design of an integrated brackish water and seawater RO
desalination and solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. A small Mobile PV-driven RO desalination
plant prototype without batteries is designed and tested. Solar-driven RO desalination can
potentially break the dependence of conventional desalination on fossil fuels, reduce operational
costs, and improve environmental sustainability. Moreover, the innovative features
incorporated in the newly designed PV–RO plant prototype are focusing on improving the cost
effectiveness of producing drinkable water in remote areas. This is achieved by maximizing
energy yield through an integrated automatic single axis PV tracking system with programmed
tilting angle adjustment. An autonomous cleaning system for PV modules is adopted for
maximizing energy generation efficiency. RO plant components are selected so as to produce 4–
5 m3/d of potable water. A basic criterion in the design of this PV-RO prototype is to produce a
minimum amount of fresh water by running the plant during peak sun hours. Mobility of the
system will provide potable water to isolated villages and population as well as ability to provide
good drinking water to different number of people from any source that is not drinkable.

Polysulfone/Polyvinyl alcohol thin film nano-composite membranes: synthesis,
characterization and application for desalination of saline groundwater

Abdel-hameed M. El-Aassar

Journal of Applied Sciences Research

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present work is synthesis, characterization and performance evaluation of modified
Polysulfone/ polyvinyl alcohol (PS/PVA) thin film composite (TFC) membranes. The modification was carried
out for PS support layer and/or crosslinked PVA barrier layer using titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles.
Gultaraldehyde (GA) was used as a cross-linker of PVA. The synthesized thin film composite (TFC) or thin film
nanocomposite (TFNC) membranes were characterized by measuring the contact angle, ATR-FTIR
spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The membranes performance included permeate flux
(L.m-2.hr-1) and salt rejection (%) was evaluated as a function of synthesis and operation conditions. The
obtained results showed that the membranes prepared from PS coated with TiO2 (o.25 wt. %) for 30 min
immersing time, 0.1wt. % PVA crosslinked with GA solution concentration of (3% wt. %) and cured at a
temperature of 75±2°C for 60 min gave the optimum performance. Also, the modification of PS-PVA/TFC
membranes using TiO2 nanoparticles improved permeate flux from 9.32 to 11.56 (L.m-2.hr-1) with a slight
increase in salt rejection from 76.79 to 78%. The salt rejection percent increased with increasing the cross-linker
concentration, curing time and temperature as well as applied pressure and decreased with the feed
concentration and vice versa in case of permeate flux for such factors except applied pressure. The desalination
of two groundwater samples (brackish and saline) were performed using the best synthesized TFNC membrane
to study the behavior of hypothetical salts during the desalination process.

Performance assessment of prepared polyamide thin film
composite membrane for desalination of saline groundwater at
Mersa Alam-Ras Banas, Red Sea Coast, Egypt

Moustafa M. Said, Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar, Yousra H. Kotp,
Hosam A. Shawky, Mohamed S.A. Abdel Mottaleb

Taylor & Francis

ABSTRACT
This study aims to enhance the performance of the flat sheet thin-film composite (TFC)
polyamide–polysulfone reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Composite RO membranes with
high salt rejection were fabricated by treating a porous polysulfone (PS) support sequentially
with a di-amine and then with a polyfunctional acid chloride, thereby forming a thin film of
polyamide (PA) on the PS support. In order to establish conditions for the development of
suitable thin-film composite (PS/TFC) membranes, various parametric studies were carried
out which included varying the concentration of reactants, reaction time, curing temperature,
and curing time for thin-film formation by the interfacial polymerization technique. By
suitable combination of these factors, 2.0 wt.% MPD, 0.5 wt.% TMC, 60-s reaction time, 80°C
curing temperature, and curing time 10 min., a desired thin film of PA with improved performance
for groundwater desalination could be obtained. Further, a combination of scanning
electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR), X-ray diffraction
(XRD) was utilized to confirm the existence and to examine the morphology of the PS/TFC
membrane. Pilot-scale RO filtration unit was used to study the performance of the fabricated
membranes for desalinating brackish, saline groundwater of Red Sea coastal area. Salt
rejections percent for various feeds were found to be in the range of 90.6–98.5.

Effect of manufacture conditions on reverse osmosis desalination performance of polyamide thin film composite membrane and their spiral wound element

Abdel-Hameed M. El-Aassar, Moustafa M. S. Abo ElFadl, Mohamed E. A. Ali,
Yousra H. Kotp, Hosam A. Shawky

Journal of DESWATER

abstract
Manual operation manufacture line was used to study the performance of flat sheet and spiral wound thin-film composite polyamide-polysulfone reverse osmosis membrane. Continuous flat sheet of porous support layer was manufactured by casting PS solution on nonwoven polyester. Fabrication
of TFC flat sheet membrane was achieved through interfacial polymerization of m-phenylenediamine
with trimesoyl chloride on the PS support by employing a reaction line. Finally, spiral wound element was manufactured by rolling of the resulted flat sheet membrane. The fabricated flat sheet PA-TFC membranes were characterized using; ATR-FTIR, contact angle, dynamic mechanical analyzer and scanning electron microscope. Performance of the resulted flat sheet and spiral wound membrane element was investigated in terms of water flux and salt rejection using synthesized sodium chloride solution, natural brackish & saline water samples. The effect of operation condition in the casting and coating machines on the performance of the flat sheet membrane was examined. Adoptions of the rolling technique showed significant improvement on the RO performance of the membrane element. Moreover, membrane elements were evaluated for application in water desalination
process using natural brackish/saline groundwater or seawater samples.

Performance assessment of synthesized CNT/polypropylene composite
membrane distillation for oil field produced water desalination

Khaled Okiel, Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar, Tarek Temraz, Salah El-Etriby & Hosam A.
Shawky

Taylor & Francis

ABSTRACT
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/polypropylene (PP) blend membranes were
synthesized by phase inversion process, using xylene as a solvent and methyl isobutyl
ketone (MIBK) as a dispersion medium for MWCNTs. The prepared MWCNTs/PP membranes
were characterized using several analytical techniques such as: attenuated total
reflections Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, atomic
force microscope (AFM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Performance of the synthesized
membranes in vacuum-enhanced direct contact membrane distillation (VEDCMD)
process was evaluated using 55°C feed synthetic water and/or oil field produced water
samples with salinities up to 230,000 ppm. Effect of membrane preparation conditions,
including polymer concentration, polymer thickness, and CNT concentrations as well as
operating temperatures and streams flow rates on the flux were studied. The results showed
an improvement in membranes characteristics and trans-membrane flux by MWCNTs addition.
Contact angle measurements indicate that the hydrophobicity of MWCNT/PP membrane
was significantly increased compared to the pure PP membrane. The SEM images
showed a well dispersion of MWCNTs in the PP matrix. By analyzing AFM images, the
roughness parameters and mean pore size increase by either using MIBK or decreasing PP
polymer concentration. On the other hand, by blending MWCNTs, the roughness parameters
increase with decreasing of mean pore size. The salt rejection of the synthesized membranes
was greater than 99.9%. The results show that MWCNTs enhanced the performance
of VEDCMD with 58% at the same operating conditions. The obtained flux ranged from
45.95 to 19.66 L/m2 h, using 10,000 ppm and brine oil field produced water, respectively, by
MWCNT/PP nano-composite membrane with 5 mg/g of MWCNTs and thickness 50 μm.